Rycheza Ezzonen von Lotharingen, Queen of Poland

Rycheza Ezzonen von Lotharingen, Queen of Poland

Vrouwelijk ca. 995 - 1063  (~ 68 jaar)

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Generatie: 1

  1. 1.  Rycheza Ezzonen von Lotharingen, Queen of PolandRycheza Ezzonen von Lotharingen, Queen of Poland was born circa 995 in Lorraine, France (dochter van Ezzo (Ehrenfried) von Schwaben, Ehrenfried I, Pfalzgraf von Lotharingen en Mathilde von Sachsen, Prinzessin des Heiligen R); stierf on 21 mrt 1063in Saalfeld an der Saale, Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, Th; was begraven inK.


    Richeza of Lotharingia (also called Richenza and Rixa; b. ca. 995/1000 - d. Saalfeld, 21 March 1063), was a German noblewoman by birth member of the Ezzonen dynasty and by marriage Queen of Poland. After she returned to Germany after the deposition of her husband in 1031, she became later a nun and today is reverencied as Blessed Richeza of Lotharingia.

    Through her three known children, she became in the direct ancestress of the eastern rulers of the Piast, Rurikid and

    Rycheza getrouwd Mieszko Lambert Piast, Mieszko II, King of Poland. Mieszko (zoon van Boleslaw "Chrobry" Piast, król Polski en Emnilda slowianska) was born in 990 in Pozn; stierf on 10 mei 1034inKrak. [Gezinsblad]

    1. Rixa, Magyar kir was born on 22 sep 1013 in Krak; stierf on 21 mei 1075inEsztergom, Kom.
    2. Kazimierz (Casimir) "Odnowiciel", Duke of Poland was born on 25 jul 1016 in Krak; stierf on 28 nov 1058inPozn.

Generatie: 2

  1. 2.  Ezzo (Ehrenfried) von Schwaben, Ehrenfried I, Pfalzgraf von LotharingenEzzo (Ehrenfried) von Schwaben, Ehrenfried I, Pfalzgraf von Lotharingen was born circa 955 in Duisburg, NRW, Deutschland (zoon van Hermann "Pusillus" von Eifelgau, Pfalzgraf von Lothringen en Hedwig van Bliesgau); stierf on 21 mrt 1034inSaalfeld an der Saale, Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, Th; was begraven inBrauweiler, Pulheim, NRW, Deutschland.


    Ezzo (c. 955 ? 21 March 1034), sometimes called Erenfried, Count Palatine of Lotharingia of the Ezzonen dynasty, was the son of Herman I.

    Having married Matilda of Germany (died 1025), a daughter of Emperor Otto II and Theophanu, Ezzo became prominent during the reign of his brother-in-law, Emperor Otto III. His power was increased due to the liberal grant of lands in Thuringia and Franconia which his wife received out of Ottonian possessions. Candidate to the imperial throne at the death of Otto III, he received huge territories (Kaiserswerth, Duisburg, and Saalfeld) for renouncing to the throne, making him the most powerful man in the empire after the emperor. Otto's successor, Emperor Henry II, was less friendly towards the powerful count, although there was no serious trouble between them until 1011. Some disturbances in Lotharingia quickly forced the emperor to come to terms, and Ezzo's assistance was purchased with additional imperial fiefs.

    After this, the relations between Henry and his vassal appear to have been satisfactory. Very little is known about Ezzo's later life, but we are told that he died at a great age at Saalfeld on 21 March 1034.

    Ezzo founded Brauweiler Abbey near Cologne, the place where his marriage had been celebrated. It was dedicated in 1028 by Piligrim, archbishop of Cologne. Ezzo and his wife were buried at Brauweiler.


    He and Mathilda left three sons and seven daughters:

    Liudolf (c. 1000?10 April 1031), Count of Z

    Ezzo getrouwd Mathilde von Sachsen, Prinzessin des Heiligen R. Mathilde (dochter van Otto von Sachsen, Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen R en Theophania Skleraina) was born in jun 979 in Sachsen, Deutschland; stierf on 4 nov 1025inEsch, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland; was begraven inBrauweiler, Pulheim, NRW, Deutschland. [Gezinsblad]

  2. 3.  Mathilde von Sachsen, Prinzessin des Heiligen R was born in jun 979 in Sachsen, Deutschland (dochter van Otto von Sachsen, Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen R en Theophania Skleraina); stierf on 4 nov 1025inEsch, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland; was begraven inBrauweiler, Pulheim, NRW, Deutschland.
    1. Ludolph von Lothringen, Graaf van Zutphen was born circa 990 in Zutphen, Zutphen, Gelderland, Nederland; stierf on 11 apr 1031inZutphen, Zutphen, Gelderland, Nederland.
    2. 1. Rycheza Ezzonen von Lotharingen, Queen of Poland was born circa 995 in Lorraine, France; stierf on 21 mrt 1063in Saalfeld an der Saale, Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, Th; was begraven inK.

Generatie: 3

  1. 4.  Hermann "Pusillus" von Eifelgau, Pfalzgraf von Lothringen was born circa 935 in France (zoon van Ezzo Ehrenfeld, Graf im Zulpichgau und Bonngau en Richwara); stierf on 16 jul 996inDeutschland.


    Herman I (count palatine)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Herman I (died 996), called Pusillus or the Slender, was the Count Palatine of Lotharingia and of several counties along the Rhine, including Bonngau, Eifelgau, Mieblgau, Zulpichgau, Keldachgau, Alzey and Auelgau, from 945 until his death.

    He was the son of Erenfried II and Richwara of Zulpichgau. He married Heylwig von Dillingen, daughter of Hucbald II von Dillingen (died 909) and Dietbirg of Swabia, mother to Pope Leo IX. He left four sons and one daughter:

    -1. Ezzo (Ehrenfried), count palatine of Lotharingia from 1015 until 1034

    -2. Hezzelin I (sometimes called Hezilo, Hermann or Heinrich) count im Zulpichgau (? 1033). He married a daughter of Duke Conrad of Carinthia

    -3. Hermann II im Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz (? 1040)

    -4. Adolf I of Lotharingia, count im Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz (1008-1018)

    -5. Richenza, Abbess of Nivelles


    Hermann getrouwd Hedwig van Bliesgau in 950. Hedwig (dochter van Hucbold von Dillingen) was born circa 920; stierf circa 990. [Gezinsblad]

  2. 5.  Hedwig van Bliesgau was born circa 920 (dochter van Hucbold von Dillingen); stierf circa 990.
    1. 2. Ezzo (Ehrenfried) von Schwaben, Ehrenfried I, Pfalzgraf von Lotharingen was born circa 955 in Duisburg, NRW, Deutschland; stierf on 21 mrt 1034inSaalfeld an der Saale, Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, Th; was begraven inBrauweiler, Pulheim, NRW, Deutschland.

  3. 6.  Otto von Sachsen, Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen ROtto von Sachsen, Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen R was born in 955 in Sachsen, Deutschland (zoon van Otto "der Grosse" von Sachsen, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches en Adelheid (Adelaide) de Bourgogne); stierf on 7 dec 983inRoma, Italia; was begraven inSaint Peter's Basilica, Sankt Peter, Freiburg, Baden-W.


    Otto II (955 ? December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto II was the youngest and sole surviving son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy.

    Otto II was made joint-ruler of Germany in 961, at an early age, and his father named him co-Emperor in 967 to secure his succession to the throne. His father also arranged for Otto II to marry the Byzantine Princess Theophanu, who would be his wife until his death. When his father died after a 37-year reign, the eighteen-year old Otto II became absolute ruler of the Holy Roman Empire in a peaceful succession. Otto II spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening Imperial rule in Germany and extending the borders of the Empire deeper into southern Italy. Otto II also continued the work of Otto I in subordinating the Catholic Church to Imperial control.

    Early in his reign, Otto II defeated a major revolt against his rule from other members of the Ottonian dynasty who claimed the throne for themselves. His victory allowed him to exclude the Bavarian line of Ottonians from the line of Imperial succession. This strengthened his authority as Emperor and secured the succession of his own son to the Imperial throne.

    With domestic affairs settled, Otto II would focus his attention from 980 onward to annexing the whole of Italy into the Empire. His conquests brought him into conflict with the Byzantine Empire and with the Muslims of the Fatimid Caliphate, who both held territories in southern Italy. After initial successes in unifying the southern Lombard principalities under his authority and in conquering Byzantine-controlled territory, Otto II's campaigns in southern Italy ended in 982 following a disastrous defeat by the Muslims. While he was preparing to counterattack Muslim forces, a major uprising by the Slavs broke out in 983, forcing the Empire to abandon its major territorial holdings east of the Elbe river.

    Otto II died suddenly in 983 at the age of 28 after a ten-year reign. He was succeeded as Emperor by his three-year old son Otto III, plunging the Empire into a political crisis.
    Birth and youth

    Otto II was born in 955, the third son of the King of Germany Otto I and his second wife Adelaide of Italy. By 957, Otto II's older brothers Henry (born 952) and Bruno (born 953) had died, as well as Otto I's son from his first wife Eadgyth, the Crown Prince Liudolf, Duke of Swabia. With his older brothers dead, the two-year old Otto II's became the Kingdom's crown prince and Otto I's heir apparent. Otto I entrusted his illegitimate son, Archbishop William of Mainz, with Otto II's literary and cultural education. Margrave Odo, commander of the Eastern March, taught the young crown prince the art of war and the kingdom's legal customs.

    Needing to put his affairs in order prior to his descent into Italy, Otto I summoned a Diet at Worms and had Otto II elected, at the age of six, co-regent in May 961. Otto II was later crowned by his uncle Bruno the Great, Archbishop of Cologne, at Aachen Cathedral on May 26, 961. While Otto I had secured succession of the throne, he had violated the Kingdom's unwritten law that succession rights could only be granted to a child who has reached the age of majority. He was likely motivated by the high-risk associated with his expedition into Italy to claim the Imperial title from the Pope. Otto I crossed the Alps into Italy, while Otto II remained in Germany, and the two Archbishops, Bruno and William, were appointed as his regents. After three and a half year absence in Italy, Otto I returned to Germany early in 965 as Holy Roman Emperor. In order to give the hope of dynastic continuity after his death, Otto I again confirmed Otto II as his heir on February 2, 965, the third anniversary of Otto I's coronation as Emperor.
    Heir apparent

    Though Otto I was crowned Emperor in 962 and returned to Germany in 965, the political situation in Italy remained unstable. After almost two years in Germany, Otto I made a third expedition to Italy in 966. Bruno was again appointed regent over the eleven-year old Otto II during Otto I's absence.

    With his power over northern and central Italy secured, Otto I sought to clarify his relationship with the Byzantine Empire in the East. The Byzantine Emperor objected to Otto's use of the title "Emperor". The situation between East and West was finally resolved to share sovereignty over southern Italy. Otto I sought a marriage alliance between his Imperial house and the Eastern Macedonian dynasty. A prerequisite for the marriage alliance was the coronation of Otto II as Co-Emperor. Otto I then sent word for Otto II to join him in Italy. In October 967, father and son met in Verona and together marched through Ravenna to Rome. On December 25, 967, Otto II was crowned Co-Emperor by Pope John XIII, securing Otto II's succession to the Imperial crown following his father's death.

    Otto II's coronation allowed marriage negotiations to begin with the East. Only in 972, six years later, under the new Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes, was a marriage and peace agreement concluded, however. Though Otto I preferred Byzantine Princess Anna Porphyrogenita, daughter of former Byzantine Emperor Romanos II, as she was born in the purple, her age (then only five years old) prevented serious consideration by the East. The choice of Emperor John I Tzimisces was his niece Theophanu, who was the soldier-emperor's niece by marriage. On April 14, 972, the sixteen-year old Otto II was married to the twelve-year old Eastern princess, and Theophanu was crowned empress by the Pope.

    Even after his coronation, Otto II remained in the shadow of his overbearing father. Though the nominal co-ruler of the Empire, he was denied any role in its administration. Unlike his earlier son Liudolf, whom Otto I named Duke of Swabia in 950, Otto II was granted no area of responsibility. Otto II was confined primarily to northern Italy during his father's time south of the Alps. After five years away, the Imperial family returned to Saxony in August 972.

    On May 7, 973, Otto died of fever, and Otto II succeeded his father as sole Emperor without meeting any opposition. Otto II spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening Imperial rule in Germany and extending it deeper into Italy.
    Reign as emperor
    Coronation and domestic strife

    When Otto the Great died, the smooth succession to the imperial throne of Otto II had long been guaranteed. Otto II had been king of Germany for twelve years and Emperor for five at the time of Otto the Great's death. Unlike his father, Otto II did not have any brothers to contest his claims to the throne. On May 8, the nobles of the Empire assembled before Otto II and, according to the Saxon Chronicler Widukind of Corvey, "elected" Otto II as his father's successor. One of Otto II's first acts was to confirm the rights and possessions of the Archbishop of Magdeburg. Although Otto II had succeeded peacefully to the throne, internal divisions of power still remained unaddressed. During his first seven years as Emperor, he was constantly occupied with maintaining Imperial power against internal rivals and external enemies. The domestic problems Otto the Great faced between 963 and 972 had not been resolved by his death. The Saxon nobility continued to resist the Archdiocese of Magdeburg located along the Empire's eastern border. Though established by Otto I, the exact details of the diocese's boundaries were left to Otto II and his aides. Otto II's marriage to the Byzantine Princess Theophanu proved to be to his disadvantage because the Saxon nobles felt it distanced the Emperor from their interests. Among Otto II's chief advisors, only the Saxon Bishop Dietrich I of Metz had close connections with the old Saxon nobility. His other advisers lacked support from the Empire's various Dukes. The Archbishop of Mainz Willigis, appointed in 975, who had been with Otto II's advisor since Otto the Great's second expedition into Italy in the 960s, had not been born from a noble family. Hildebald of Worms, who had been appointed as Otto II's Chancellor in 977 and then as Bishop of Worms in 979, was also not from a noble family. Otto the Great also failed to clarify affairs in Italy prior to his death. Otto died soon after the appointment of Pope Benedict VI in 973. In 974 Benedict was imprisoned in the Castel Sant'Angelo, the stronghold of the Crescentii family. When Otto II sent an imperial representative, Count Sicco, to secure his release, Crescentius I and Cardinal-Deacon Franco Ferrucci, who would subsequently become Boniface VII, an antipope, had Benedict murdered while still in prison.[4] Following his coronation, a rift developed between Otto II and his mother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy. From the death of Otto the Great until Easter 974, Adelaide accompanied the Emperor at all times, traveling throughout the Empire with him. However, Otto II's mother and his wife Theophano each distrusted the influence the other held over the Emperor, causing friction within the Imperial household. A final meeting between Otto II and Adelaide was arranged shortly before Pentecost in 978, but a peaceful outcome was not achieved, forcing Adelaide to retire to Burgundy and to the protection of her brother King Conrad of Burgundy.
    Conflict with Henry II

    Otto II sought continued peace between himself and the descendants of his uncle Henry I, Duke of Bavaria. To ensure domestic tranquillity, Otto II, on June 27, 973, granted his cousin, Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, control over the imperial castles in Bamberg and Stegaurach. This was not enough for the young Bavarian Duke, who wished to extend his influence in the Duchy of Swabia as his father had under Otto the Great. The death of Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg on July 4, 973, brought the conflict between the cousins to a head. Without consulting Otto II, Henry II named his cousin Henry as the new Bishop of Augsburg. Augsburg was located on the western side of the Swabian-Bavarian boarder, the territory of Henry II's brother-in-law Burchard III, Duke of Swabia. Henry's actions in naming a bishop in a duchy not his own and without Imperial direction brought him into conflict with both Otto II and Burchard III. Not desiring civil war, Otto II, on September 22, 973, invested Henry as bishop.

    On November 12, 973, Burchard III died with no heir: his union to Hadwing, sister of Henry II, had produced no children. With no clear successor, Henry II demanded that Otto II name him as the new Duke of Swabia. The Emperor sensed the far-reaching ambitions of his cousin and denied his request. Instead, Otto II named as Duke his nephew Otto, son of his half-brother Liudolf, Duke of Swabia. Prior to his appointment, Otto had been a long-time opponent of Henry II's expanding influence in Swabia. By naming a descendant of his half-brother instead of his cousin, Otto II reinforced his father's policy of appointing close family members to key posts throughout the Empire. This appointment elevated the descendants of Otto the Great above those of Henry I in the selection process, further dividing Otto II and Henry II.

    The appointment of Otto as Duke of Swabia was taken by Henry II as an assault on his claim to the Imperial throne and a slight to his honor.[3] He and his advisor, Bishop Abraham of Freising, conspired with the Duke of Poland Mieszko I and the Duke of Bohemia Boleslaus II against Otto II in 974. While the historical sources do not describe the goals of the conspirators, Henry II likely intended to restore his honor and to ensure his position as the second most influential man in the Empire. Upon hearing of the conspiracy, Poppo, the Bishop of W

    Otto getrouwd Theophania Skleraina in 972inRoma, Italia. Theophania (dochter van Konstantinos Skleros en Sophia Phokaina) was born in 956 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 jun 991inNijmegen, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Nederland. [Gezinsblad]

  4. 7.  Theophania SklerainaTheophania Skleraina was born in 956 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey (dochter van Konstantinos Skleros en Sophia Phokaina); stierf on 15 jun 991inNijmegen, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Nederland.


    Statue at St Dionysius Church, Eschwege

    Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire Tenure 972?983 Coronation 14 April 972

    Spouse Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor


    Sophie I, Abbess of Gandersheim
    Adelheid I, Abbess of Quedlinburg
    Matilda, Countess Palatine of Lorraine
    Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor

    Theophanu (Greek: ??????? ?????????, Theophano Skleraina; circa 960 ? June 15, 991), also spelled Theophania (????????), Theophana or Theophano, was the niece of the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes. By her marriage with Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, she was Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire and held regency as Empress dowager upon her husband's death in 983. Her name is derived from Medieval Greek Theophaneia (?????????), "appearance of God" (Theophany).


    Marriage certificate,

    Lower Saxon State Archive, Wolfenb

    1. 3. Mathilde von Sachsen, Prinzessin des Heiligen R was born in jun 979 in Sachsen, Deutschland; stierf on 4 nov 1025inEsch, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland; was begraven inBrauweiler, Pulheim, NRW, Deutschland.

Generatie: 4

  1. 8.  Ezzo Ehrenfeld, Graf im Zulpichgau und Bonngau was born circa 910 in Zulpich, NRW, Deutschland; stierf on 7 okt 963inDeutschland.


    Erenfried II (died c. 970), son of Eberhard I, Count of Bonngau and Zulpichgau. Count in Keldachgau Count in Z

    Ezzo getrouwd Richwara in 933inDeutschland. Richwara (dochter van Adelolf, Comte de Boulogne en Mahaut de Crequy) was born circa 915 in Boulogne, France; stierf in 963inDeutschland. [Gezinsblad]

  2. 9.  Richwara was born circa 915 in Boulogne, France (dochter van Adelolf, Comte de Boulogne en Mahaut de Crequy); stierf in 963inDeutschland.
    1. 4. Hermann "Pusillus" von Eifelgau, Pfalzgraf von Lothringen was born circa 935 in France; stierf on 16 jul 996inDeutschland.

  3. 10.  Hucbold von Dillingen
    1. 5. Hedwig van Bliesgau was born circa 920; stierf circa 990.

  4. 12.  Otto "der Grosse" von Sachsen, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches was born on 23 nov 912 in Wallhausen, Bad Kreuznach, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland (zoon van Heinrich 'der Vogler' von Sachsen, Heinrich I, K en Matilda "die Heilige" von Ringelheim); stierf on 7 mei 973inMemleben, Burgenland, Sachsen-Anhalt, Deutschland; was begraven inMagdeburg, Sachsen, Deutschland.



    Otto I (23 November 912 ? 7 May 973), also known as Otto the Great, was emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, reigning as German king from 936 until his death in 973. The oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, Otto was "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy".[1]

    Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936. He continued his father's work to unify all German tribes into a single kingdom and greatly expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his family to the kingdom's most important duchies. This reduced the various dukes, who had previously been co-equals with the king, into royal subjects under his authority. Otto transformed the Roman Catholic Church in Germany to strengthen the royal office and subjected its clergy to his personal control.

    After putting down a brief civil war among the rebellious duchies, Otto defeated the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, thus ending the Hungarian invasions of Western Europe.[2] The victory against the pagan Magyars earned Otto the reputation as a savior of Christendom and secured his hold over the kingdom. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy and extended his realm's borders to the north, east, and south. In control of much of central and southern Europe, the patronage of Otto and his immediate successors caused a limited cultural renaissance of the arts and architecture. Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome.

    Otto's later years were marked by conflicts with the Papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. Reigning from Rome, Otto sought to improve relations with the Byzantine Empire, which opposed his claim to emperorship and his realm's further expansion to the south. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son, Otto II, in April 972. Otto finally returned to Germany in August 972 and died of natural causes in 973. Otto II succeeded him as Emperor.

    Otto getrouwd Adelheid (Adelaide) de Bourgogne in 951. Adelheid (dochter van Rudolph II, Roy de Bourgogne en Bertha von Schwaben, Contesse de Provence) was born circa 931 in Bourgogne, France; stierf on 16 dec 999inAlsace, France. [Gezinsblad]

  5. 13.  Adelheid (Adelaide) de Bourgogne was born circa 931 in Bourgogne, France (dochter van Rudolph II, Roy de Bourgogne en Bertha von Schwaben, Contesse de Provence); stierf on 16 dec 999inAlsace, France.
    1. 6. Otto von Sachsen, Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen R was born in 955 in Sachsen, Deutschland; stierf on 7 dec 983inRoma, Italia; was begraven inSaint Peter's Basilica, Sankt Peter, Freiburg, Baden-W.

  6. 14.  Konstantinos Skleros was born circa 930 in Didimoticho, Evros, Makedonia Thraki, Greece (zoon van Gregoria); stierf on 11 mrt 991in Didimoticho, Evros, Makedonia Thraki, Greece.



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    This article is incomplete. Please help to improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (June 2011)

    The Skleros or Sclerus (Greek: ???????; plural: ???????, Skleroi), feminine form Skleraina/Scleraena (Greek: ?????????), was a noble Byzantine family active mostly in the 9th?11th centuries.


    [hide] 1 Origin and early members

    2 10th century 3 References 4 Sources

    Origin and early members[edit]

    The family descended from north-eastern Asia Minor, either from Lesser Armenia or the theme of Sebasteia. Due to their origin, they have been traditionally regarded as Armenians, although this is nowhere explicitly attested.[1][2][3]

    Although the family belonged to the Anatolian military aristocracy, in the 9th century its members are mostly attested as being active in the Balkans: the first Skleros known was a strategos of the Peloponnese in 805, and in 811, the same office was occupied by Leo Skleros, possibly a son or nephew of the former.[1][4] Another unnamed member of the family is recorded in the 840s as serving the Arabs and being in conflict with Umar al-Aqta, the emir of Malatya, possibly indicating a fall from favour of the family under the Amorian dynasty.[4][5] The family seems to have regained a prominent position under Basil I the Macedonian (r. 867?886), for the magistros and anthypatos Theodore Skleros is recorded in 869?870. His sons Antony and Niketas became patrikioi, with Antony serving as strategos of Hellas and Niketas possibly as admiral of the imperial fleet (droungarios tou ploimou), while he is also recorded as leading an embassy to the Magyars in 894.[1][4][6]

    10th century[edit]

    The Skleroi fall into obscurity during the reign of Leo VI the Wise (r. 886?912), who favoured the Doukas and Phokas families. In turn, the Skleroi seem to have supported Romanos Lekapenos: the general Pantherios, who has been tentatively identified as a member of the Skleros clan, became strategos of Lykandos, Thrakesion and finally Domestic of the Schools for a short time in 944?945, before being replaced by Bardas Phokas the Elder.[7][8]

    The most distinguished scion of the family, Bardas Skleros, first appears in 956 as a patrikios and strategos of the small frontier theme of Kaloudia. Bardas's siblings married into the most prominent families of the military aristocracy: Constantine Skleros married Sophia Phokaina, the niece of Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963?969), while Maria Skleraina married Nikephoros Phokas's nephew, John Tzimiskes. The latter connection was of particular importance for the family's fortunes: although she died before Tzimiskes ascended the throne in 969, the Skleroi were promoted by him to senior positions in the state.[8] Bardas was appointed as Domestic of the Schools of the East, suppressing the revolt of the Phocas clan led by Bardas Phokas the Younger and defeating the Rus' in 970.[9] Despite a period of disgrace in 972?974, connected with a reported conspiracy against Tzimiskes, the Skleroi remained among the most important families during his reign.[1][10] In 972, Tzimiskes even married Constantine Skleros's daughter, Theophano, to the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II (r. 973?983


    Konstantinos getrouwd Sophia Phokaina. Sophia (dochter van Bardas 'the Elder' Phokas en Maleina) was born in 930 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf in inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey. [Gezinsblad]

  7. 15.  Sophia Phokaina was born in 930 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey (dochter van Bardas 'the Elder' Phokas en Maleina); stierf in inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey.


    http://genealogiequebec.info/en/testphp/info.php?no=101441 -------------------- Phokas (Byzantine family)

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    Phokas or Phocas (Greek: ?????), feminine form Phokaina (Greek: ???????), was the name of a Byzantine aristocratic clan from Cappadocia, which in the 9th and 10th centuries provided a series of high-ranking generals and an emperor, Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963?969). Its members and their clients monopolized the high command positions of the Byzantine army for much of the 10th century and led the successful Byzantine offensive against the Arabs in the East. As one of the leading families of the Anatolian military aristocracy, the Phokades were also involved in a series of rebellions that laid claim to power and challenged the emperors at Constantinople. Their power was eventually broken by Basil II (r. 976?1025), and the family declined in importance after the 11th century.


    [hide] 1 History 1.1 Origin and early members

    1.2 Apex of power and fall 1.3 Later members of the family

    2 Family tree, 9th?11th centuries 3 References 4 Sources


    Origin and early members[edit]

    According to Michael Attaleiates, the family descended from the ancient Roman gens Fabia, while Ali ibn al-Athir ascribed them an Arab origin from Tarsos. These theories, however, are a later invention. Whatever their origins, the Phokades appear to have settled in Cappadocia, where their estates were concentrated and which is clearly attested as their power base and the center of their activities.[1][2] Various authors have speculated on an Armenian or Georgian origin,[2][3] partly to account for the frequent presence of the name "Bardas" among the family members, but none of these hypotheses can be conclusively proven.[4][5]

    The blinding of Leo Phokas.

    The first attested member of the family was a soldier, probably of humble origin, who was appointed tourmarches in 872. His son, Nikephoros Phokas the Elder, became a distinguished general, scoring several victories against the Arabs, especially in southern Italy, and reaching the position of Domestic of the Schools.[2][4][6] His son, Leo Phokas the Elder, was also Domestic of the Schools, but was defeated by the Bulgarian tsar Symeon (r. 893?927), and later unsuccessfully opposed the rise of Romanos Lekapenos to the throne in 919, being captured and blinded. His brother, Bardas Phokas the Elder, already active as a general, fell in disgrace for a time, but by the time of Lekapenos's fall in 944, he was a patrikios and a high-ranking general.[4][7]

    Apex of power and fall[edit]

    After the fall of the Lekapenoi clan, Constantine VII appointed Bardas as Domestic of the Schools, while his sons Nikephoros, Leo, and Constantine were placed as strategoi of the themes of Anatolikon, Cappadocia, and Seleukeia respectively.[8][9] These appointments heralded a period of over twenty years when the Phokades and their clients monopolized the Byzantine army's leadership. During this period, the Phokas clan was closely allied with the Maleinoi, a rich and powerful family from Charsianon, through the marriage of Bardas to a Maleinos lady. Other families that were closely aligned with and often related to them through marriage were the Adralestoi, Skleroi, Kourkouai, Parsakountenoi, Balantai, and Botaneiatai.[10]

    Entry of Nikephoros Phokas (r. 963-969) into Constantinople as emperor, from the Madrid Skylitzes.

    Bardas himself, already in his mid-sixties when named commander-in-chief, proved a mediocre general, suffering a string of defeats at the hands of Sayf al-Dawla. One of them, in 953, even left his son Constantine Phokas captive in Dawla's hands. Finally, in 955, Bardas was replaced by his son Nikephoros. With the aid of Leo, who had already established himself through victories of his own, and his nephew John Tzimiskes, Nikephoros achieved a series of successes, recovering Crete and Cyprus and repeatedly defeating Sayf al-Dawla's forces.[9][11] With the sudden death of Romanos II in 963, the popular and powerful Nikephoros seized the throne, becoming senior emperor and guardian over the young sons of Romanos, Basil II, and Constantine VIII. His father Bardas was named Caesar, and his brother Leo became kouropalates and logothetes tou dromou. As emperor, Nikephoros continued his campaigns in the East, conquering Cilicia and northwestern Syria.[4][12]

    Nikephoros's regime, however, quickly became unpopular, both due to his focus on military affairs to the detriment of the economy and for his religious policies. In December 969, he was murdered by a group of disaffected generals led by his nephew and one-time prot

    1. 7. Theophania Skleraina was born in 956 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 jun 991inNijmegen, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Nederland.