Maria Dobroniega Vladimirovna

Vrouwelijk 1011 - 1087  (76 jaar)

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Generatie: 1

  1. 1.  Maria Dobroniega Vladimirovna was born in 1011 in Kiev, Ukraine (dochter van Vladimir Sviatoslavich, Grandduke of Kiev en Anna Porphyrogeneta); stierf in 1087inKrak.

    Maria getrouwd Kazimierz (Casimir) "Odnowiciel", Duke of Poland in 1039. Kazimierz (zoon van Mieszko Lambert Piast, Mieszko II, King of Poland en Rycheza Ezzonen von Lotharingen, Queen of Poland) was born on 25 jul 1016 in Kraków (Krakau), Małopolskie, Polska (Poland); stierf on 28 nov 1058inPozn. [Gezinsblad]

    1. Wladyslaw Herman, King of Poland was born in 1043 in Krak; stierf on 4 jun 1102inPlock, Mazowieckie, Polska.

Generatie: 2

  1. 2.  Vladimir Sviatoslavich, Grandduke of KievVladimir Sviatoslavich, Grandduke of Kiev was born circa 957 in Pskov, Pskovskaya Oblast, Rossija (Russia, Rusland) (zoon van Sviatoslav Igorevich, Grandduke of Kiev en Malusha Malkovna); stierf on 15 jul 1015inBerestovo,Kiev, Ukraine.


    VLADIMIR Sviatoslavich. The Primary Chronicle names Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir as grandsons of Olga. The Primary Chronicle names Malusha, stewardess of Olga and sister of Dobrinya, as mother of Sviatoslav's son Vladimir, when recording that his father sent him to Novgorod in 970 with his maternal uncle after the inhabitants had demanded a prince of their own. After the death of his half-brother Oleg, Vladimir fled "beyond the seas" and governors were assigned to Novgorod. With support mustered in Scandinavia, Vladimir regained control of Novgorod. He captured Polotsk after killing Rogvolod Prince of Polotsk, who had refused Vladimir's offer to marry his daughter (whom he married anyway). He then moved southwards towards Kiev to attack his half-brother Iaropolk, who fled to Rodnia but was murdered when he returned to Kiev to negotiate with Vladimir. He thereby succeeded in [980] as VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev. In 981, Vladimir invaded Polish territory and conquered Czerwie?, "Peremyshl" and other cities. After actively promoting the worship of pagan idols, he was baptised in [987/88] as part of an agreement to help Emperor Basileios II to defeat a rebellion. He increased his own personal prestige by marrying the emperor's sister and imposed Christianity on his people by force. He sought to rule his diverse territories by nominating his various sons to rule in different towns, although at the end of his reign he was faced with the rebellions of his son Iaroslav and his adopted son Sviatopolk. Vladimir died while preparing for war with Novgorod following the suspension of payment of tribute by his son Iaroslav. Vladimir was described as "fornicator immensus et crudelis" by Thietmar. According to the Primary Chronicle, Vladimir had 300 concubines at Vyshgorod, 300 at Belgorod and 200 at Berestovo. The Primary Chronicle records the death of Vladimir at Berestovo 15 Jul 1015. He was later esteemed to be a saint, his feast day being 15 July. m firstly ([977], divorced 986) as her second husband, ROGNED of Polotsk, widow of --- Jarl in Sweden, daughter of ROGVOLOD Prince of Polotsk & his wife --- ([956]-[998/1000]). The Primary Chronicle names Rogned, daughter of Rogvolod Prince of Polotsk, recording that she at first refused to marry Vladimir, preferring his half-brother Yaropolk. She became a nun in [989]. The Primary Chronicle records the death of Rogned in [998/1000]. m secondly (Kherson 988) ANNA of Byzantium, daughter of Emperor ROMANOS II & his second wife Theophano [n

    Vladimir getrouwd Anna Porphyrogeneta on 19 mei 989inKherson, Ukraine. Anna (dochter van Romanos Porphyrogenetos, Romanos II, Autokratos tou Bizantiou en Theophano Anastasia Phokas) was born on 13 mrt 963 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf in 1011inKiev, Ukraine. [Gezinsblad]

  2. 3.  Anna Porphyrogeneta was born on 13 mrt 963 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey (dochter van Romanos Porphyrogenetos, Romanos II, Autokratos tou Bizantiou en Theophano Anastasia Phokas); stierf in 1011inKiev, Ukraine.


    Anna Porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor Romanos II and Theophano, was the only princess of the Makedones to have been married to a foreigner. The Byzantine emperors regarded the Franks and Russians as barbarians, refusing Hugues Capet's proposals to marry Anna to his son Robert I, so the Baptism of Kievan Rus was a prerequisite for this marriage. Following the wedding, Vladimir is said to have divorced all his pagan wives, although this claim is disputed. Regarded by later Russians as a saint, Anna was interred with her husband in the Church of the Tithes....

    There is also a case for Yaroslav's descent from Anna. According to this theory, Nestor the Chronicler deliberately represented Yaroslav as Rogneda's son, because he systematically removed all information concerning Kievan ties with Byzantium, spawning pro-Varangian bias (see Normanist theory for details). Proponents allege that Yaroslav's true age was falsified by Nestor, who attempted to represent him as 10 years older than he actually had been, in order to justify Yaroslav's seizure of the throne at the expense of his older brothers.

    The Primary Chronicle, for instance, states that Yaroslav died at the age of 76 in 1054 (thus putting his birth at 978), while dating Vladimir's encounter and marriage to Yaroslav's purported mother, Rogneda, to 980. Elsewhere, speaking about Yaroslav's rule in Novgorod (1016), Nestor says that Yaroslav was 28, thus putting his birth at 988. The forensic analysis of Yaroslav's skeleton seems to have confirmed these suspicions, estimating Yaroslav's birth at ca. 988-990, after both the Baptism of Kievan Rus and Vladimir's divorce of Rogneda. Consequently, it is assumed that Yaroslav was either Vladimir's natural son born after the latter's baptism or his son by Anna.

    Had Yaroslav an imperial Byzantine descent, he likely would not have stinted to advertise it. Some have seen the willingness of European kings to marry Yaroslav's daughters as an indication of this imperial descent. Subsequent Polish chroniclers and historians, in particular, were eager to view Yaroslav as Anna's son. Recent proponents invoke onomastic arguments, which have often proven decisive in the matters of medieval prosopography. It is curious that Yaroslav named his elder son Vladimir (after his own father) and his eldest daughter Anna (as if after his own mother). Also, there is a certain pattern in his sons having Slavic names (as Vladimir), and his daughters having Greek names only (as Anna). However, in the absence of better sources, Anna's maternity remains a pure speculation.

    1. 1. Maria Dobroniega Vladimirovna was born in 1011 in Kiev, Ukraine; stierf in 1087inKrak.

Generatie: 3

  1. 4.  Sviatoslav Igorevich, Grandduke of Kiev was born in jul 942 in Kiev, Ukraine; stierf in mrt 972inKhortytsia, Zaporizhska Oblast, Ukraine.


    Sviatoslav l of Kiev,

    Sviatoslav I of Kiev Prince of Rus' Sviatoslav the Brave

    Sviatoslav Reign 945?972 Coronation 964 Predecessor Igor Successor Yaropolk I Issue: Yaropolk I Oleg

    With Malusha: Vladimir the Great Full name Sviatoslav Igorevich Father Igor Mother Saint Olga (regent 945-964) Born 942? Kiev Died March 972 [aged ~30] The island of Khortytsa Dnieper Burial ? Religion Paganism

    Princely stamp Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Old East Slavic: ?~??????? / ??????????[1] ?????????, Sventoslav? / Svantoslav? Igorevi??; Russian: ????????? ????????, Sviatoslav Igorevich; Ukrainian: ????????? ????????, Sviatoslav Ihorovych; Bulgarian: ?????????, Svetoslav, Greek: ?????????????, Sphendosthlabos) (c. 942 ? March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav, was a prince of Rus.[2][3] The son of Igor of Kiev and Olga, Sviatoslav is famous for his incessant campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe?Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire; he also conquered numerous East Slavic tribes, defeated the Alans and the Volga Bulgars,[4] and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars.

    His decade-long reign over Rus' was marked by rapid expansion into the Volga River valley, the Pontic steppe and the Balkans. By the end of his short life, Sviatoslav carved out for himself the largest state in Europe, eventually moving his capital from Kiev (modern day Ukraine) to Pereyaslavets (modern day Romania) on the Danube in 969. In contrast with his mother's conversion to Christianity, Sviatoslav remained a staunch pagan all of his life. Due to his abrupt death in ambush, Sviatoslav's conquests, for the most part, were not consolidated into a functioning empire, while his failure to establish a stable succession led to fratricidal feud among his sons, resulting in two of his three sons being killed.

    Contents [hide] 1 Name 2 Early life and personality 3 Appearance 4 Religious beliefs 5 Family 6 Eastern campaigns 7 Campaigns in the Balkans 8 Death and aftermath 9 Sayings by Svyatoslav 10 In art and literature 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References [edit]Name

    The Kievan Rus' at the beginning of Sviatoslav's reign (in red), showing his sphere of influence to 972 (in orange) Sviatoslav was the first ruler of Rus' who is recorded in the Primary Chronicle with a name of Slavic origin (as opposed to his predecessors, whose names are ultimately derived from Old Norse). This name is however not recorded in other medieval Slavic countries. Even in Rus', it was attested only among the members of the house of Rurik, as were the names of Sviatoslav's immediate successors: Vladimir, Yaroslav, Mstislav).[5] This is questionable,as these names follow conventions well established in other Slavic lands, and it ignores Vladimir of Bulgaria, who ruled between 889-893. Some scholars speculate that the name of Sviatoslav, composed of the Slavic roots for "holy" and "glory", was an artificial derivation combining those of his predecessors Oleg and Rurik (they mean "holy" and "glorious" in Old Norse, respectively).[6] On the other hand,such a compound structure name was already known from Great Moravia, as in the rulers named Svatopluk. Clearly Sviatislav's name belongs to this tradition, as he had a son by the name of Yaropolk, of much the same form, and a grandson by the very same name, Sviatopolk.

    [edit]Early life and personality

    Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Henryk Siemiradzki (1843?1902). Virtually nothing is known about his childhood and youth, which he spent reigning in Novgorod. Sviatoslav's father, Igor, was killed by the Drevlians around 945 and his mother, Olga, ruled as regent in Kiev until Sviatoslav's maturity (ca. 963).[7] His tutor was a Varangian named Asmud. "Quick as a leopard,"[8] The tradition of having Varangian tutors for the sons of ruling princes survived well into the 11th century. Sviatoslav appears to have had little patience for administration. His life was spent with his druzhina (roughly, "troops") in permanent warfare against neighboring states. According to the Primary Chronicle: upon his expeditions he carried with him neither wagons nor kettles, and boiled no meat, but cut off small strips of horseflesh, game or beef, and ate it after roasting it on the coals. Nor did he have a tent, but he spread out a horse-blanket under him, and set his saddle under his head, and all his retinue did likewise.[9]


    Illustration of Sviatoslav wearing a vyshyvanka

    Madrid Skylitzes. Meeting between John Tzimiskes and Sviatoslav. Sviatoslav's appearance has been described very clearly by Leo the Deacon, who himself attended the meeting of Sviatoslav with John I Tzimiskes. Following Deacon's memories, Sviatoslav was a blue-eyed male of average height but of stalwart build, much more sturdy than Tzimiskes. He shaved his blond head and his beard but wore a bushy mustache and a sidelock as a sign of his nobility.[10] He preferred to dress in white, and it was noted that his garments were much cleaner than those of his men, although he have had a lot in common with his warriors. He wore a single large gold earring bearing a carbuncle and two pearls.[11]

    [edit]Religious beliefs

    His mother, Olga, converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity at the court of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in 957. However,[12] Sviatoslav remained a pagan for all of his life. In the treaty of 971 between Sviatoslav and the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes, the Rus' are swearing by Perun and Veles.[13] According to the Primary Chronicle, he believed that his warriors (druzhina) would lose respect for him and mock him if he became a Christian.[14] The allegiance of his warriors was of paramount importance in his conquest of an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Danube.


    Svjatoslav's mother, Olga, with her escort in Constantinople, a miniature from the late 11th-century chronicle of John Skylitzes. Very little is known of Sviatoslav's family life. It is possible that Sviatoslav was not the only (and the eldest) son of his parents. The Russo-Byzantine treaty of 945 mentions a certain Predslava, Volodislav's wife, as the noblest of the Rus' women after Olga. The fact that Predslava was Oleg's mother is presented by Vasily Tatishchev. He also speculated that Predslava was of a Hungarian nobility. George Vernadsky was among many historians to speculate that Volodislav was Igor's eldest son and heir who died at some point during Olga's regency. Another chronicle told that Oleg (? - 944?) was the eldest son of Igor. At the time of Igor's death, Sviatoslav was still a child and he was raised by his mother or at her instructions. Her influence, however, did not extend to his religious observance.

    Sviatoslav, had several children, but the origin of his wives is not specified in the chronicle. By his wives, he had Yaropolk and Oleg.[15] By Malusha, a woman of indeterminate origins,[16] Sviatoslav had Vladimir, who would ultimately break with his father's paganism and convert Rus' to Christianity. John Skylitzes reported that Vladimir had a brother named Sfengus; whether this Sfengus was a son of Sviatoslav, a son of Malusha by a prior or subsequent husband, or an unrelated Rus' nobleman is unclear.[17]

    [edit]Eastern campaigns

    Sviatoslav I in the Tsarsky Titulyarnik, 1672 Shortly after his accession to the throne, Sviatoslav began campaigning to expand the Rus' control over the Volga valley and the Pontic steppe region. His greatest success was the conquest of Khazaria, which for centuries had been one of the strongest states of Eastern Europe. The sources are not clear about the roots of the conflict between Khazaria and Rus', so several possibilities have been suggested. The Rus' had an interest in removing the Khazar hold on the Volga trade route because the Khazars collected duties from the goods transported by the Volga. Historians have suggested that the Byzantine Empire may have incited the Rus' against the Khazars, who fell out with the Byzantines after the persecutions of the Jews in the reign of Romanus I Lecapenus.[18]

    Sviatoslav began by rallying the Khazars' East Slavic vassal tribes to his cause. Those who would not join him, such as the Vyatichs, were attacked and forced to pay tribute to the Kievan Rus' rather than the Khazars.[19] According to a legend recorded in the Primary Chronicle, Sviatoslav sent a message to the Vyatich rulers, consisting of a single phrase: "I want to come at you!" (Old East Slavic: "???? ?? ?? ???")[20] This phrase is used in modern Russian (usually misquoted as "??? ?? ??") and in modern Ukrainian ("??? ?? ??") to denote an unequivocal declaration of one's intentions. Proceeding by the Oka and Volga rivers, he invaded Volga Bulgaria and exacted tribute from the local population, thus bringing under Kievan control the upper Volga River. He employed Oghuz and Pecheneg mercenaries in this campaign, perhaps to counter the Khazars' and Bulgars' superior cavalry.[21]

    The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel, sacked by Sviatoslav c. 965 (aerial photo from excavations conducted by Mikhail Artamonov in the 1930s) Sviatoslav destroyed the Khazar city of Sarkel around 965, and possibly sacked (but did not occupy) the Khazar city of Kerch on the Crimea.[22] At Sarkel he established a Rus' settlement called Belaya Vyezha ("the white tower" or "the white fortress", the East Slavic translation for "Sarkel").[23] He subsequently destroyed the Khazar capital of Atil.[24] A visitor to Atil wrote soon after Sviatoslav's campaign: "The Rus' attacked, and no grape or raisin remained, not a leaf on a branch."[25] The exact chronology of his Khazar campaign is uncertain and disputed; for example, Mikhail Artamonov and David Christian proposed that the sack of Sarkel came after the destruction of Atil.[26]

    Although Ibn Haukal reports Sviatoslav's sack of Samandar in modern-day Dagestan, the Rus' leader did not bother to occupy the Khazar heartlands north of the Caucasus Mountains permanently. On his way back to Kiev, Sviatoslav chose to strike against the Ossetians and force them into subservience.[27] Therefore, Khazar successor statelets continued their precarious existence in the region.[28] The destruction of Khazar imperial power paved the way for Kievan Rus' to dominate north-south trade routes through the steppe and across the Black Sea, routes that formerly had been a major source of revenue for the Khazars. Moreover, Sviatoslav's campaigns led to increased Slavic settlement in the region of the Saltovo-Mayaki culture, greatly changing the demographics and culture of the transitional area between the forest and the steppe.[29]

    Sviatoslav getrouwd Malusha Malkovna. Malusha was born in 940 in Lyubech, Chernihivskaya Oblast, Rossija (Russia, Rusland); stierf in 1002inKiev, Ukraine. [Gezinsblad]

  2. 5.  Malusha Malkovna was born in 940 in Lyubech, Chernihivskaya Oblast, Rossija (Russia, Rusland); stierf in 1002inKiev, Ukraine.


    Housekeeper slave of Grand Princess Olga, Courtesan, Concubine

    1. 2. Vladimir Sviatoslavich, Grandduke of Kiev was born circa 957 in Pskov, Pskovskaya Oblast, Rossija (Russia, Rusland); stierf on 15 jul 1015inBerestovo,Kiev, Ukraine.

  3. 6.  Romanos Porphyrogenetos, Romanos II, Autokratos tou Bizantiou was born in 929 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 mrt 963inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey.


    Romanos II was a son of Emperor Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene, the daughter of Emperor Romanos I and his wife Theodora. Named after his maternal grandfather, Romanos was married, as a child, to Bertha, the illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy. On April 6, 945, after the fall of the Lekapenoi, Constantine VII crown his son Romanos co-emperor. With Hugh out of power in Italy and dead by 947, and Bertha herself dead in 949, Romanos secured the promise from his father that he would be allowed to select his own bride. Romanos' choice fell on an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he married in 956 and renamed Theophano.

    In November 959 Romanos II succeeded his father on the throne, among rumors that he or his wife had sped up the end of Constantine VII by poison. Romanos carried out a virtual purge of his father's courtiers and replaced them with his own friends and those of his wife. Among the persons removed from court were the Empress Mother, Helena, and her daughters, all of them being relegated to a monastery. Nevertheless, many of Romanos' appointees were able men, including his chief adviser, the eunuch Joseph Bringas.

    The pleasure-loving sovereign could also leave military matters in the adept hands of his generals, in particular the brothers Leo and Nikephoros Phokas. In 960 Nikephoros Phokas was sent with a fleet of 1,000 dromons, 2,000 chelandia, and 308 transports (entire fleet was manned by 27,000 oarsmen and marines) carrying 50,000 men to recover Crete from the Muslims. After a difficult campaign and the 9-month siege of Chandax, Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control over the entire island in 961. Following a triumph celebrated at Constantinople, Nikephoros was sent to the eastern frontier, where the Emir of Aleppo Sayf al-Daula was engaged in annual raids into Byzantine Anatolia. Nikephoros conquered Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, sacking the palace of the Emir and taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar incursions into the Byzantine Balkans.

    After a lengthy hunting expedition Romanos II took ill and died on March 15, 963. Rumor attributed his death to poison administered by his wife Theophano. Romanos II's reliance on his wife and on bureaucrats like Joseph Bringas had resulted in a relatively capable administration, but built up resentment among the nobility, which was associated with the military.

    Romanos getrouwd Theophano Anastasia Phokas in 957inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey. Theophano was born circa 936 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 jun 991inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey. [Gezinsblad]

  4. 7.  Theophano Anastasia Phokas was born circa 936 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 jun 991inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey.


    Theophano was a Byzantine empress. She was the daughter-in-law of Constantine VII; wife of Romanos II; wife of Nikephoros II Phokas; lover of John I Tzimiskes; the mother of Basil II, Constantine VIII and the princess Anna Porphyrogenita, who later married the Russian prince Vladimir.

    [edit] Becoming Empress This beautiful but considerably amoral woman played an important role in 10th century Byzantine history. An innkeeper's daughter by the name of Anastaso, the crown-prince Romanos fell in love with her around the year 956 and married her. After their marriage, she was renamed Theophano, after Theophano, a sainted Empress of the Macedonian dynasty.

    She is rumoured to have poisoned her father-in-law, the emperor Constantine VII (in complicity with her husband Romanos). Constantine died in 959, but he died of a fever which lasted several months, not showing evidence of poisoning. Romanos' dependence upon his wife for advice and support allowed her to dominate the empire during his short reign.

    [edit] Partnership with Nikephoros Phokas On March 15, 963, Emperor Romanos II died unexpectedly at the age of twenty-six. Again, Theophano was rumoured to have poisoned him, although she had nothing to gain and everything to lose from this action. Their sons Basil II and Constantine VIII were heirs and Theophano was named regent. However she realized that to secure power she needed to align her interest with the strongest general at the time, Nikephoros Phokas. As the army had already proclaimed him as an Emperor in Caesarea, Nikephoros entered Constantinople on August 15, broke the resistance of Joseph Bringas (a eunuch palace official who had become Romanos' chief counsellor) in bloody street fights, and on 16 August he was crowned in the Hagia Sophia. After that he married Theophano, thereby legitimizing his reign by marrying into the Macedonian dynasty.

    The marriage proved controversial as Nikephoros had been god-father to one or more of Theophano's children, which placed them within a prohibited spiritual relationship. It should also be noted that the Orthodox Church only begrudgingly recognized second marriages. Thus even before the issue of his having been the god-father of at least one of Theophano's children surfaced the Patriarch, Polyeuctus, banned Nikephoros from kissing the holy altar on the grounds that he must perform the penance for contracting a second marriage first. In the issue of his role as godfather, however, Nikephoros organised a council at which it was declared that since the relevant rules had been pronounced by the iconoclast Constatine V Copronymus, it was of no effect. Polyeuctus did not accept the council as legitimate, and proceeded to excommunicate Nikephoros and insist that he would not relent until Nikephoros put away Theophano. In response, Bardas Phokas and another person testified Nikephoros was not in fact godfather to any of Theophano's children, at which Polyeuctus relented and allowed Nikephoros to return to full-fellowship in the church and keep Theophano as his wife. (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Apogee. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1992, p. 192-194)

    [edit] Betrayal However, not too long after, she became lover to a young and brilliant general, John Tzimiskes. They soon began to conspire against Nikephoros. She prepared the assassination and John and his friends implemented it on the night between 10 and 11 December 969. The emperor was now John I Tzimiskes (969-976).

    [edit] Downfall However, Theophano badly miscalculated in the hope of becoming the wife of the new ruler. Slain Nikephoros found his avenger in the Patriarch Polyeuktos, who was determined to punish the crime. He demanded John to repent, to punish the murderers (his helpers and friends), and to remove Theophano from the court. John was forced to submit to the Patriarch?s requests. Only then was he allowed to enter the church and be crowned emperor.

    Theophano was first sent into exile to the island of Prinkipo (sometimes known as Prote). However, shortly afterwards, she made a reappearance in the capital, seeking asylum in the Hagia Sophia, where, however, she was forcibly removed on the orders of the Chamberlain Basil, who condemned her to exile in distant Armenia. Before this, he granted her request of an audience with the Emperor John, who surprisingly agreed to attend. Once there however, he was subjected to a torrent of abuse from the former empress, who then physically attacked the chamberlain, landing several telling blows. And according to Gibbon, she avowed the illegitimacy of her son, Basil II and hurled abuse at him as he stood silent, accepting the rule of his (soon to be) uncle, John Tzimiskes.

    It is possible that after the succession of her sons to the throne that she was able to return to Constantinople.

    [edit] Children Theophano and Romanos II had at least three children:

    Basil II Constantine VIII Anna, who married Vladimir I of Kiev. Theophanu, consort Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor has been suggested as the fourth daughter of the couple. Current research holds that her actual father was Konstantinos Skleros (???????????? ???????), brother of the pretender Bardas Skleros (?????? ???????) and her mother was Sophia Phokaina (????? ???????), niece of Nikephoros II.

    -------------------- Theophano Dates: 943?-after 969

    Occupation: Byzantine empress, consort of Romanus II and Nicephorus II, regent for Basil II and Constantine VIII

    Also known as: Theophanu, Theophana

    Theophano's first marriage was to the Byzantine Emperor Romanus II, whom she was able to dominate. Theophano, along with a eunuch, Joseph Bringus, essentially ruled in her husband's place.

    She was alleged to have poisoned Romanus II in 963, after which she served as regent for her sons Basil II and Constantine VIII. She married Nicephorus II on September 20, 963, barely a month after he became emperor, displacing her sons. He ruled until 969 when he was assassinated by a conspiracy that included John I Tzimisces, whose mistress she had become. Polyeuctus, the patriarch of Constantinople, forced him to banish Theophano to a convent and punish the other murderers.

    Her daughter Theophano married Otto II, the Western emperor, and her daughter Anna married Vladimir I of Kiev. (Not all sources agree that these were their daughters.)

    An example of a highly-charged opinion of Theophano -- a few paragraphs from the lengthy The World of the Middle Ages: A Reorientation of Medieval History by John L. Lamonte, 1949 (pp. 138-140):

    The death of Constantine VII was caused in all probability by poison administered to him by his son, Romanus II, at the instigation of his wife Theophano. This Theophano was a notorious courtesan, the daughter of a tavern keeper, who had won the affection of the young Romanus, a dissipated and generally worthless youth, so that he married her and associated her on the throne. With her father-in-law removed and her debauched husband on the throne, Theophano took into her own hands the reins of power, ruling with the advice of the eunuch Joseph Bringas, an old functionary of Constantine's....

    Just as Nicephorus reached his great triumph after the capture of Crete, Romanus II died. Whether it was the result of the excesses of dissipation in which he had always indulged, or whether, as was claimed by many, due to poison administered by his wife, Romanus departed this world in 963 leaving Theophano a widow at the age of twenty with two small sons, Basil and Constantine. What could be more natural than that the widowed empress should seek a supporter and helpmate in the gallant soldier? Bringas attempted to assume the custody for the two young princes at the death of their father, but Theophano and the patriarch engaged in an unholy alliance to confer the government on the hero Nicephorus. As a result, Nicephorus was declared protector and regent for the young princes; soon thereafter he was proclaimed emperor by his troops; then six months after the death of Romanus, Nicephorus married Theophano. The marriage, however, antagonized the patriarch; Nicephorus' monastic friends despaired of him; the Church showed her displeasure at this offensive union. Nicephorus, "the fool of love," retaliated by an imperial law which drove all monks from the cities of the empire and confiscated their goods....

    In the campaigns of Nicephorus a leading role had been played by a younger cousin of the emperor, John Tzmisces. The two cousins were alike in military ability but unlike in personality and appearance. While Nicephorus was hairy, unkempt, heavy and mystical, John was handsome, urbane and sophisticated. The new general was thrown into intimate contact with the empress; Nicephorus spent much of his time away at the wars. Further, his conscience troubled him and he took to wearing a hair shirt. It must be admitted that Nicephorus showed greater prowess in battle than in the boudoir, and he undoubtedly insulted the empress by his habit of sleeping on a panther-skin on the floor. Before long Theophano began to find solace for her loneliness during her husband's absences in the company of Tzmisces. Nicephorus deprived Tzmisces of his military rank and banished him to the provinces, but Theophano had other plans and, thinking to replace Nicephorus with John in every capacity, plotted the murder of her husband. The empress arranged for John and his men to be admitted into the palace; they found Nicephorus asleep on his panther-skin and fell upon him, stabbing and hacking his face and body ( December 11, 969). Tzmisces had himself immediately proclaimed emperor.

    Theophano saw herself now the wife of a new and handsome emperor. But she had been duped; when the patriarch refused to recognize Tzmisces as emperor until he had "driven from the Sacred Palace the adulteress . . . who had been the chief mover in the crime" he cheerfully repudiated Theophano, who was banished to a nunnery (she was then 27 years old). John married Theodora, the daughter of Constantine VII. To further propitiate the clergy, Tzmisces rescinded all the anticlerical legislation of Nicephorus and made great gifts to churches and monasteries.

    1. 3. Anna Porphyrogeneta was born on 13 mrt 963 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf in 1011inKiev, Ukraine.