Anna Porphyrogeneta

Vrouwelijk 963 - 1011  (47 jaar)


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  1. 1.  Anna Porphyrogeneta was born on 13 mrt 963 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey (dochter van Romanos Porphyrogenetos, Romanos II, Autokratos tou Bizantiou en Theophano Anastasia Phokas); stierf in 1011inKiev, Ukraine.

    Aantekeningen:

    Anna Porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor Romanos II and Theophano, was the only princess of the Makedones to have been married to a foreigner. The Byzantine emperors regarded the Franks and Russians as barbarians, refusing Hugues Capet's proposals to marry Anna to his son Robert I, so the Baptism of Kievan Rus was a prerequisite for this marriage. Following the wedding, Vladimir is said to have divorced all his pagan wives, although this claim is disputed. Regarded by later Russians as a saint, Anna was interred with her husband in the Church of the Tithes....

    There is also a case for Yaroslav's descent from Anna. According to this theory, Nestor the Chronicler deliberately represented Yaroslav as Rogneda's son, because he systematically removed all information concerning Kievan ties with Byzantium, spawning pro-Varangian bias (see Normanist theory for details). Proponents allege that Yaroslav's true age was falsified by Nestor, who attempted to represent him as 10 years older than he actually had been, in order to justify Yaroslav's seizure of the throne at the expense of his older brothers.

    The Primary Chronicle, for instance, states that Yaroslav died at the age of 76 in 1054 (thus putting his birth at 978), while dating Vladimir's encounter and marriage to Yaroslav's purported mother, Rogneda, to 980. Elsewhere, speaking about Yaroslav's rule in Novgorod (1016), Nestor says that Yaroslav was 28, thus putting his birth at 988. The forensic analysis of Yaroslav's skeleton seems to have confirmed these suspicions, estimating Yaroslav's birth at ca. 988-990, after both the Baptism of Kievan Rus and Vladimir's divorce of Rogneda. Consequently, it is assumed that Yaroslav was either Vladimir's natural son born after the latter's baptism or his son by Anna.

    Had Yaroslav an imperial Byzantine descent, he likely would not have stinted to advertise it. Some have seen the willingness of European kings to marry Yaroslav's daughters as an indication of this imperial descent. Subsequent Polish chroniclers and historians, in particular, were eager to view Yaroslav as Anna's son. Recent proponents invoke onomastic arguments, which have often proven decisive in the matters of medieval prosopography. It is curious that Yaroslav named his elder son Vladimir (after his own father) and his eldest daughter Anna (as if after his own mother). Also, there is a certain pattern in his sons having Slavic names (as Vladimir), and his daughters having Greek names only (as Anna). However, in the absence of better sources, Anna's maternity remains a pure speculation.

    Anna getrouwd Vladimir Sviatoslavich, Grandduke of Kiev on 19 mei 989inKherson, Ukraine. Vladimir (zoon van Sviatoslav Igorevich, Grandduke of Kiev en Malusha Malkovna) was born circa 957 in Pskov, Pskovskaya Oblast, Rossija (Russia, Rusland); stierf on 15 jul 1015inBerestovo,Kiev, Ukraine. [Gezinsblad]

    Kinderen:
    1. Maria Dobroniega Vladimirovna was born in 1011 in Kiev, Ukraine; stierf in 1087inKrak.

Generatie: 2

  1. 2.  Romanos Porphyrogenetos, Romanos II, Autokratos tou Bizantiou was born in 929 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 mrt 963inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey.

    Aantekeningen:

    Romanos II was a son of Emperor Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene, the daughter of Emperor Romanos I and his wife Theodora. Named after his maternal grandfather, Romanos was married, as a child, to Bertha, the illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy. On April 6, 945, after the fall of the Lekapenoi, Constantine VII crown his son Romanos co-emperor. With Hugh out of power in Italy and dead by 947, and Bertha herself dead in 949, Romanos secured the promise from his father that he would be allowed to select his own bride. Romanos' choice fell on an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he married in 956 and renamed Theophano.

    In November 959 Romanos II succeeded his father on the throne, among rumors that he or his wife had sped up the end of Constantine VII by poison. Romanos carried out a virtual purge of his father's courtiers and replaced them with his own friends and those of his wife. Among the persons removed from court were the Empress Mother, Helena, and her daughters, all of them being relegated to a monastery. Nevertheless, many of Romanos' appointees were able men, including his chief adviser, the eunuch Joseph Bringas.

    The pleasure-loving sovereign could also leave military matters in the adept hands of his generals, in particular the brothers Leo and Nikephoros Phokas. In 960 Nikephoros Phokas was sent with a fleet of 1,000 dromons, 2,000 chelandia, and 308 transports (entire fleet was manned by 27,000 oarsmen and marines) carrying 50,000 men to recover Crete from the Muslims. After a difficult campaign and the 9-month siege of Chandax, Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control over the entire island in 961. Following a triumph celebrated at Constantinople, Nikephoros was sent to the eastern frontier, where the Emir of Aleppo Sayf al-Daula was engaged in annual raids into Byzantine Anatolia. Nikephoros conquered Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, sacking the palace of the Emir and taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar incursions into the Byzantine Balkans.

    After a lengthy hunting expedition Romanos II took ill and died on March 15, 963. Rumor attributed his death to poison administered by his wife Theophano. Romanos II's reliance on his wife and on bureaucrats like Joseph Bringas had resulted in a relatively capable administration, but built up resentment among the nobility, which was associated with the military.

    Romanos getrouwd Theophano Anastasia Phokas in 957inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey. Theophano was born circa 936 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 jun 991inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey. [Gezinsblad]


  2. 3.  Theophano Anastasia Phokas was born circa 936 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf on 15 jun 991inIstanbul, Marmara, Turkey.

    Aantekeningen:

    Theophano was a Byzantine empress. She was the daughter-in-law of Constantine VII; wife of Romanos II; wife of Nikephoros II Phokas; lover of John I Tzimiskes; the mother of Basil II, Constantine VIII and the princess Anna Porphyrogenita, who later married the Russian prince Vladimir.

    [edit] Becoming Empress This beautiful but considerably amoral woman played an important role in 10th century Byzantine history. An innkeeper's daughter by the name of Anastaso, the crown-prince Romanos fell in love with her around the year 956 and married her. After their marriage, she was renamed Theophano, after Theophano, a sainted Empress of the Macedonian dynasty.

    She is rumoured to have poisoned her father-in-law, the emperor Constantine VII (in complicity with her husband Romanos). Constantine died in 959, but he died of a fever which lasted several months, not showing evidence of poisoning. Romanos' dependence upon his wife for advice and support allowed her to dominate the empire during his short reign.

    [edit] Partnership with Nikephoros Phokas On March 15, 963, Emperor Romanos II died unexpectedly at the age of twenty-six. Again, Theophano was rumoured to have poisoned him, although she had nothing to gain and everything to lose from this action. Their sons Basil II and Constantine VIII were heirs and Theophano was named regent. However she realized that to secure power she needed to align her interest with the strongest general at the time, Nikephoros Phokas. As the army had already proclaimed him as an Emperor in Caesarea, Nikephoros entered Constantinople on August 15, broke the resistance of Joseph Bringas (a eunuch palace official who had become Romanos' chief counsellor) in bloody street fights, and on 16 August he was crowned in the Hagia Sophia. After that he married Theophano, thereby legitimizing his reign by marrying into the Macedonian dynasty.

    The marriage proved controversial as Nikephoros had been god-father to one or more of Theophano's children, which placed them within a prohibited spiritual relationship. It should also be noted that the Orthodox Church only begrudgingly recognized second marriages. Thus even before the issue of his having been the god-father of at least one of Theophano's children surfaced the Patriarch, Polyeuctus, banned Nikephoros from kissing the holy altar on the grounds that he must perform the penance for contracting a second marriage first. In the issue of his role as godfather, however, Nikephoros organised a council at which it was declared that since the relevant rules had been pronounced by the iconoclast Constatine V Copronymus, it was of no effect. Polyeuctus did not accept the council as legitimate, and proceeded to excommunicate Nikephoros and insist that he would not relent until Nikephoros put away Theophano. In response, Bardas Phokas and another person testified Nikephoros was not in fact godfather to any of Theophano's children, at which Polyeuctus relented and allowed Nikephoros to return to full-fellowship in the church and keep Theophano as his wife. (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Apogee. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1992, p. 192-194)

    [edit] Betrayal However, not too long after, she became lover to a young and brilliant general, John Tzimiskes. They soon began to conspire against Nikephoros. She prepared the assassination and John and his friends implemented it on the night between 10 and 11 December 969. The emperor was now John I Tzimiskes (969-976).

    [edit] Downfall However, Theophano badly miscalculated in the hope of becoming the wife of the new ruler. Slain Nikephoros found his avenger in the Patriarch Polyeuktos, who was determined to punish the crime. He demanded John to repent, to punish the murderers (his helpers and friends), and to remove Theophano from the court. John was forced to submit to the Patriarch?s requests. Only then was he allowed to enter the church and be crowned emperor.

    Theophano was first sent into exile to the island of Prinkipo (sometimes known as Prote). However, shortly afterwards, she made a reappearance in the capital, seeking asylum in the Hagia Sophia, where, however, she was forcibly removed on the orders of the Chamberlain Basil, who condemned her to exile in distant Armenia. Before this, he granted her request of an audience with the Emperor John, who surprisingly agreed to attend. Once there however, he was subjected to a torrent of abuse from the former empress, who then physically attacked the chamberlain, landing several telling blows. And according to Gibbon, she avowed the illegitimacy of her son, Basil II and hurled abuse at him as he stood silent, accepting the rule of his (soon to be) uncle, John Tzimiskes.

    It is possible that after the succession of her sons to the throne that she was able to return to Constantinople.

    [edit] Children Theophano and Romanos II had at least three children:

    Basil II Constantine VIII Anna, who married Vladimir I of Kiev. Theophanu, consort Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor has been suggested as the fourth daughter of the couple. Current research holds that her actual father was Konstantinos Skleros (???????????? ???????), brother of the pretender Bardas Skleros (?????? ???????) and her mother was Sophia Phokaina (????? ???????), niece of Nikephoros II.

    -------------------- Theophano Dates: 943?-after 969

    Occupation: Byzantine empress, consort of Romanus II and Nicephorus II, regent for Basil II and Constantine VIII

    Also known as: Theophanu, Theophana

    Theophano's first marriage was to the Byzantine Emperor Romanus II, whom she was able to dominate. Theophano, along with a eunuch, Joseph Bringus, essentially ruled in her husband's place.

    She was alleged to have poisoned Romanus II in 963, after which she served as regent for her sons Basil II and Constantine VIII. She married Nicephorus II on September 20, 963, barely a month after he became emperor, displacing her sons. He ruled until 969 when he was assassinated by a conspiracy that included John I Tzimisces, whose mistress she had become. Polyeuctus, the patriarch of Constantinople, forced him to banish Theophano to a convent and punish the other murderers.

    Her daughter Theophano married Otto II, the Western emperor, and her daughter Anna married Vladimir I of Kiev. (Not all sources agree that these were their daughters.)

    An example of a highly-charged opinion of Theophano -- a few paragraphs from the lengthy The World of the Middle Ages: A Reorientation of Medieval History by John L. Lamonte, 1949 (pp. 138-140):

    The death of Constantine VII was caused in all probability by poison administered to him by his son, Romanus II, at the instigation of his wife Theophano. This Theophano was a notorious courtesan, the daughter of a tavern keeper, who had won the affection of the young Romanus, a dissipated and generally worthless youth, so that he married her and associated her on the throne. With her father-in-law removed and her debauched husband on the throne, Theophano took into her own hands the reins of power, ruling with the advice of the eunuch Joseph Bringas, an old functionary of Constantine's....

    Just as Nicephorus reached his great triumph after the capture of Crete, Romanus II died. Whether it was the result of the excesses of dissipation in which he had always indulged, or whether, as was claimed by many, due to poison administered by his wife, Romanus departed this world in 963 leaving Theophano a widow at the age of twenty with two small sons, Basil and Constantine. What could be more natural than that the widowed empress should seek a supporter and helpmate in the gallant soldier? Bringas attempted to assume the custody for the two young princes at the death of their father, but Theophano and the patriarch engaged in an unholy alliance to confer the government on the hero Nicephorus. As a result, Nicephorus was declared protector and regent for the young princes; soon thereafter he was proclaimed emperor by his troops; then six months after the death of Romanus, Nicephorus married Theophano. The marriage, however, antagonized the patriarch; Nicephorus' monastic friends despaired of him; the Church showed her displeasure at this offensive union. Nicephorus, "the fool of love," retaliated by an imperial law which drove all monks from the cities of the empire and confiscated their goods....

    In the campaigns of Nicephorus a leading role had been played by a younger cousin of the emperor, John Tzmisces. The two cousins were alike in military ability but unlike in personality and appearance. While Nicephorus was hairy, unkempt, heavy and mystical, John was handsome, urbane and sophisticated. The new general was thrown into intimate contact with the empress; Nicephorus spent much of his time away at the wars. Further, his conscience troubled him and he took to wearing a hair shirt. It must be admitted that Nicephorus showed greater prowess in battle than in the boudoir, and he undoubtedly insulted the empress by his habit of sleeping on a panther-skin on the floor. Before long Theophano began to find solace for her loneliness during her husband's absences in the company of Tzmisces. Nicephorus deprived Tzmisces of his military rank and banished him to the provinces, but Theophano had other plans and, thinking to replace Nicephorus with John in every capacity, plotted the murder of her husband. The empress arranged for John and his men to be admitted into the palace; they found Nicephorus asleep on his panther-skin and fell upon him, stabbing and hacking his face and body ( December 11, 969). Tzmisces had himself immediately proclaimed emperor.

    Theophano saw herself now the wife of a new and handsome emperor. But she had been duped; when the patriarch refused to recognize Tzmisces as emperor until he had "driven from the Sacred Palace the adulteress . . . who had been the chief mover in the crime" he cheerfully repudiated Theophano, who was banished to a nunnery (she was then 27 years old). John married Theodora, the daughter of Constantine VII. To further propitiate the clergy, Tzmisces rescinded all the anticlerical legislation of Nicephorus and made great gifts to churches and monasteries.

    http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_theophano1.htm

    Kinderen:
    1. 1. Anna Porphyrogeneta was born on 13 mrt 963 in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey; stierf in 1011inKiev, Ukraine.