Otto von Sachsen, Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen R

Otto von Sachsen, Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen R

Mannelijk 955 - 983  (28 jaar)

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  • Naam Otto von Sachsen 
    Achtervoegsel Otto II, Kaiser des Heiligen R 
    Geboren 955  Sachsen, Deutschland Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats 
    Geslacht Mannelijk 
    Overleden 7 dec 983  Roma, Italia Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats 
    Begraven Saint Peter's Basilica, Sankt Peter, Freiburg, Baden-W Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats 
    Patriarch & Matriarch
    Widukind, K,   geb. ca. 735, Wittenberg, Sachsen-Wittenberg, Th Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 7 jan 807, Engern, Niedersachsen, Deutschland Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd ~ 72 jaar)  (5 x Overgrootvader) 
    Reginlinde von Nellenburg,   geb. ca. 889, Nellenberg, Baden- W Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 23 apr 955, Abbey at St. Peter & Paul Kirche, Ufenau Insel, Z Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd ~ 66 jaar)  (Overgrootmoeder) 
    Persoon-ID I7283  Spinder
    Laatst gewijzigd op 18 sep 2014 

    Vader Otto "der Grosse" von Sachsen, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches,   geb. 23 nov 912, Wallhausen, Bad Kreuznach, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 7 mei 973, Memleben, Burgenland, Sachsen-Anhalt, Deutschland Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd 60 jaar)
    Andere partners; Edith (Ä’adgȳð), Königin des Ostfrankenreiches  getr. 930  
    Moeder Adelheid (Adelaide) de Bourgogne,   geb. ca. 931, Bourgogne, France Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 16 dec 999, Alsace, France Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd ~ 68 jaar) 
    Getrouwd 951 
    Gezins-ID F2451  Gezinsblad  |  Familiekaart

    Gezin Theophania Skleraina,   geb. 956, Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 15 jun 991, Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Nederland Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd 35 jaar) 
    Getrouwd 972  Roma, Italia Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats 
    +1. Mathilde von Sachsen, Prinzessin des Heiligen R,   geb. jun 979, Sachsen, Deutschland Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 4 nov 1025, Esch, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd ~ 46 jaar)
    Laatst gewijzigd op 10 sep 2014 
    Gezins-ID F2311  Gezinsblad  |  Familiekaart

  • Gebeurteniskaart
    Link naar Google MapsGeboren - 955 - Sachsen, Deutschland Link naar Google Earth
     = Link naar Google Earth 

  • Foto's
    Otto II von Sachsen
    Otto II von Sachsen

  • Aantekeningen 
    • Otto II (955 ? December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto II was the youngest and sole surviving son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy.

      Otto II was made joint-ruler of Germany in 961, at an early age, and his father named him co-Emperor in 967 to secure his succession to the throne. His father also arranged for Otto II to marry the Byzantine Princess Theophanu, who would be his wife until his death. When his father died after a 37-year reign, the eighteen-year old Otto II became absolute ruler of the Holy Roman Empire in a peaceful succession. Otto II spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening Imperial rule in Germany and extending the borders of the Empire deeper into southern Italy. Otto II also continued the work of Otto I in subordinating the Catholic Church to Imperial control.

      Early in his reign, Otto II defeated a major revolt against his rule from other members of the Ottonian dynasty who claimed the throne for themselves. His victory allowed him to exclude the Bavarian line of Ottonians from the line of Imperial succession. This strengthened his authority as Emperor and secured the succession of his own son to the Imperial throne.

      With domestic affairs settled, Otto II would focus his attention from 980 onward to annexing the whole of Italy into the Empire. His conquests brought him into conflict with the Byzantine Empire and with the Muslims of the Fatimid Caliphate, who both held territories in southern Italy. After initial successes in unifying the southern Lombard principalities under his authority and in conquering Byzantine-controlled territory, Otto II's campaigns in southern Italy ended in 982 following a disastrous defeat by the Muslims. While he was preparing to counterattack Muslim forces, a major uprising by the Slavs broke out in 983, forcing the Empire to abandon its major territorial holdings east of the Elbe river.

      Otto II died suddenly in 983 at the age of 28 after a ten-year reign. He was succeeded as Emperor by his three-year old son Otto III, plunging the Empire into a political crisis.
      Birth and youth

      Otto II was born in 955, the third son of the King of Germany Otto I and his second wife Adelaide of Italy. By 957, Otto II's older brothers Henry (born 952) and Bruno (born 953) had died, as well as Otto I's son from his first wife Eadgyth, the Crown Prince Liudolf, Duke of Swabia. With his older brothers dead, the two-year old Otto II's became the Kingdom's crown prince and Otto I's heir apparent. Otto I entrusted his illegitimate son, Archbishop William of Mainz, with Otto II's literary and cultural education. Margrave Odo, commander of the Eastern March, taught the young crown prince the art of war and the kingdom's legal customs.

      Needing to put his affairs in order prior to his descent into Italy, Otto I summoned a Diet at Worms and had Otto II elected, at the age of six, co-regent in May 961. Otto II was later crowned by his uncle Bruno the Great, Archbishop of Cologne, at Aachen Cathedral on May 26, 961. While Otto I had secured succession of the throne, he had violated the Kingdom's unwritten law that succession rights could only be granted to a child who has reached the age of majority. He was likely motivated by the high-risk associated with his expedition into Italy to claim the Imperial title from the Pope. Otto I crossed the Alps into Italy, while Otto II remained in Germany, and the two Archbishops, Bruno and William, were appointed as his regents. After three and a half year absence in Italy, Otto I returned to Germany early in 965 as Holy Roman Emperor. In order to give the hope of dynastic continuity after his death, Otto I again confirmed Otto II as his heir on February 2, 965, the third anniversary of Otto I's coronation as Emperor.
      Heir apparent

      Though Otto I was crowned Emperor in 962 and returned to Germany in 965, the political situation in Italy remained unstable. After almost two years in Germany, Otto I made a third expedition to Italy in 966. Bruno was again appointed regent over the eleven-year old Otto II during Otto I's absence.

      With his power over northern and central Italy secured, Otto I sought to clarify his relationship with the Byzantine Empire in the East. The Byzantine Emperor objected to Otto's use of the title "Emperor". The situation between East and West was finally resolved to share sovereignty over southern Italy. Otto I sought a marriage alliance between his Imperial house and the Eastern Macedonian dynasty. A prerequisite for the marriage alliance was the coronation of Otto II as Co-Emperor. Otto I then sent word for Otto II to join him in Italy. In October 967, father and son met in Verona and together marched through Ravenna to Rome. On December 25, 967, Otto II was crowned Co-Emperor by Pope John XIII, securing Otto II's succession to the Imperial crown following his father's death.

      Otto II's coronation allowed marriage negotiations to begin with the East. Only in 972, six years later, under the new Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes, was a marriage and peace agreement concluded, however. Though Otto I preferred Byzantine Princess Anna Porphyrogenita, daughter of former Byzantine Emperor Romanos II, as she was born in the purple, her age (then only five years old) prevented serious consideration by the East. The choice of Emperor John I Tzimisces was his niece Theophanu, who was the soldier-emperor's niece by marriage. On April 14, 972, the sixteen-year old Otto II was married to the twelve-year old Eastern princess, and Theophanu was crowned empress by the Pope.

      Even after his coronation, Otto II remained in the shadow of his overbearing father. Though the nominal co-ruler of the Empire, he was denied any role in its administration. Unlike his earlier son Liudolf, whom Otto I named Duke of Swabia in 950, Otto II was granted no area of responsibility. Otto II was confined primarily to northern Italy during his father's time south of the Alps. After five years away, the Imperial family returned to Saxony in August 972.

      On May 7, 973, Otto died of fever, and Otto II succeeded his father as sole Emperor without meeting any opposition. Otto II spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening Imperial rule in Germany and extending it deeper into Italy.
      Reign as emperor
      Coronation and domestic strife

      When Otto the Great died, the smooth succession to the imperial throne of Otto II had long been guaranteed. Otto II had been king of Germany for twelve years and Emperor for five at the time of Otto the Great's death. Unlike his father, Otto II did not have any brothers to contest his claims to the throne. On May 8, the nobles of the Empire assembled before Otto II and, according to the Saxon Chronicler Widukind of Corvey, "elected" Otto II as his father's successor. One of Otto II's first acts was to confirm the rights and possessions of the Archbishop of Magdeburg. Although Otto II had succeeded peacefully to the throne, internal divisions of power still remained unaddressed. During his first seven years as Emperor, he was constantly occupied with maintaining Imperial power against internal rivals and external enemies. The domestic problems Otto the Great faced between 963 and 972 had not been resolved by his death. The Saxon nobility continued to resist the Archdiocese of Magdeburg located along the Empire's eastern border. Though established by Otto I, the exact details of the diocese's boundaries were left to Otto II and his aides. Otto II's marriage to the Byzantine Princess Theophanu proved to be to his disadvantage because the Saxon nobles felt it distanced the Emperor from their interests. Among Otto II's chief advisors, only the Saxon Bishop Dietrich I of Metz had close connections with the old Saxon nobility. His other advisers lacked support from the Empire's various Dukes. The Archbishop of Mainz Willigis, appointed in 975, who had been with Otto II's advisor since Otto the Great's second expedition into Italy in the 960s, had not been born from a noble family. Hildebald of Worms, who had been appointed as Otto II's Chancellor in 977 and then as Bishop of Worms in 979, was also not from a noble family. Otto the Great also failed to clarify affairs in Italy prior to his death. Otto died soon after the appointment of Pope Benedict VI in 973. In 974 Benedict was imprisoned in the Castel Sant'Angelo, the stronghold of the Crescentii family. When Otto II sent an imperial representative, Count Sicco, to secure his release, Crescentius I and Cardinal-Deacon Franco Ferrucci, who would subsequently become Boniface VII, an antipope, had Benedict murdered while still in prison.[4] Following his coronation, a rift developed between Otto II and his mother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy. From the death of Otto the Great until Easter 974, Adelaide accompanied the Emperor at all times, traveling throughout the Empire with him. However, Otto II's mother and his wife Theophano each distrusted the influence the other held over the Emperor, causing friction within the Imperial household. A final meeting between Otto II and Adelaide was arranged shortly before Pentecost in 978, but a peaceful outcome was not achieved, forcing Adelaide to retire to Burgundy and to the protection of her brother King Conrad of Burgundy.
      Conflict with Henry II

      Otto II sought continued peace between himself and the descendants of his uncle Henry I, Duke of Bavaria. To ensure domestic tranquillity, Otto II, on June 27, 973, granted his cousin, Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, control over the imperial castles in Bamberg and Stegaurach. This was not enough for the young Bavarian Duke, who wished to extend his influence in the Duchy of Swabia as his father had under Otto the Great. The death of Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg on July 4, 973, brought the conflict between the cousins to a head. Without consulting Otto II, Henry II named his cousin Henry as the new Bishop of Augsburg. Augsburg was located on the western side of the Swabian-Bavarian boarder, the territory of Henry II's brother-in-law Burchard III, Duke of Swabia. Henry's actions in naming a bishop in a duchy not his own and without Imperial direction brought him into conflict with both Otto II and Burchard III. Not desiring civil war, Otto II, on September 22, 973, invested Henry as bishop.

      On November 12, 973, Burchard III died with no heir: his union to Hadwing, sister of Henry II, had produced no children. With no clear successor, Henry II demanded that Otto II name him as the new Duke of Swabia. The Emperor sensed the far-reaching ambitions of his cousin and denied his request. Instead, Otto II named as Duke his nephew Otto, son of his half-brother Liudolf, Duke of Swabia. Prior to his appointment, Otto had been a long-time opponent of Henry II's expanding influence in Swabia. By naming a descendant of his half-brother instead of his cousin, Otto II reinforced his father's policy of appointing close family members to key posts throughout the Empire. This appointment elevated the descendants of Otto the Great above those of Henry I in the selection process, further dividing Otto II and Henry II.

      The appointment of Otto as Duke of Swabia was taken by Henry II as an assault on his claim to the Imperial throne and a slight to his honor.[3] He and his advisor, Bishop Abraham of Freising, conspired with the Duke of Poland Mieszko I and the Duke of Bohemia Boleslaus II against Otto II in 974. While the historical sources do not describe the goals of the conspirators, Henry II likely intended to restore his honor and to ensure his position as the second most influential man in the Empire. Upon hearing of the conspiracy, Poppo, the Bishop of W