Sviatoslav Igorevich, Grandduke of Kiev

Mannelijk 942 - 972  (~ 29 jaar)

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  • Naam Sviatoslav Igorevich  
    Achtervoegsel Grandduke of Kiev 
    Geboren jul 942  Kiev, Ukraine Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats 
    Geslacht Mannelijk 
    Overleden mrt 972  Khortytsia, Zaporizhska Oblast, Ukraine Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats 
    Oorzaak: Killed in battle with the Pechenegs at the Dnieper River cataracts, skull was made into a  
    Persoon-ID I7404  Spinder
    Laatst gewijzigd op 12 sep 2014 

    Gezin Malusha Malkovna,   geb. 940, Lyubech, Chernihivskaya Oblast, Rossija (Russia, Rusland) Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 1002, Kiev, Ukraine Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd 62 jaar) 
    +1. Vladimir Sviatoslavich, Grandduke of Kiev,   geb. ca. 957, Pskov, Pskovskaya Oblast, Rossija (Russia, Rusland) Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats,   ovl. 15 jul 1015, Berestovo,Kiev, Ukraine Zoek alle personen met gebeurtenissen in deze plaats  (Leeftijd ~ 58 jaar)
    Rogneda Ragnvaldsdottir Polotskaya  getr. 977;   Anna Porphyrogeneta  getr. 19 mei 989
    Laatst gewijzigd op 12 sep 2014 
    Gezins-ID F2378  Gezinsblad  |  Familiekaart

  • Gebeurteniskaart
    Link naar Google MapsGeboren - jul 942 - Kiev, Ukraine Link naar Google Earth
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    COA of Kyiv
    COA of Kyiv

  • Aantekeningen 
    • Sviatoslav l of Kiev,

      Sviatoslav I of Kiev Prince of Rus' Sviatoslav the Brave

      Sviatoslav Reign 945?972 Coronation 964 Predecessor Igor Successor Yaropolk I Issue: Yaropolk I Oleg

      With Malusha: Vladimir the Great Full name Sviatoslav Igorevich Father Igor Mother Saint Olga (regent 945-964) Born 942? Kiev Died March 972 [aged ~30] The island of Khortytsa Dnieper Burial ? Religion Paganism

      Princely stamp Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Old East Slavic: ?~??????? / ??????????[1] ?????????, Sventoslav? / Svantoslav? Igorevi??; Russian: ????????? ????????, Sviatoslav Igorevich; Ukrainian: ????????? ????????, Sviatoslav Ihorovych; Bulgarian: ?????????, Svetoslav, Greek: ?????????????, Sphendosthlabos) (c. 942 ? March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav, was a prince of Rus.[2][3] The son of Igor of Kiev and Olga, Sviatoslav is famous for his incessant campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe?Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire; he also conquered numerous East Slavic tribes, defeated the Alans and the Volga Bulgars,[4] and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars.

      His decade-long reign over Rus' was marked by rapid expansion into the Volga River valley, the Pontic steppe and the Balkans. By the end of his short life, Sviatoslav carved out for himself the largest state in Europe, eventually moving his capital from Kiev (modern day Ukraine) to Pereyaslavets (modern day Romania) on the Danube in 969. In contrast with his mother's conversion to Christianity, Sviatoslav remained a staunch pagan all of his life. Due to his abrupt death in ambush, Sviatoslav's conquests, for the most part, were not consolidated into a functioning empire, while his failure to establish a stable succession led to fratricidal feud among his sons, resulting in two of his three sons being killed.

      Contents [hide] 1 Name 2 Early life and personality 3 Appearance 4 Religious beliefs 5 Family 6 Eastern campaigns 7 Campaigns in the Balkans 8 Death and aftermath 9 Sayings by Svyatoslav 10 In art and literature 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References [edit]Name

      The Kievan Rus' at the beginning of Sviatoslav's reign (in red), showing his sphere of influence to 972 (in orange) Sviatoslav was the first ruler of Rus' who is recorded in the Primary Chronicle with a name of Slavic origin (as opposed to his predecessors, whose names are ultimately derived from Old Norse). This name is however not recorded in other medieval Slavic countries. Even in Rus', it was attested only among the members of the house of Rurik, as were the names of Sviatoslav's immediate successors: Vladimir, Yaroslav, Mstislav).[5] This is questionable,as these names follow conventions well established in other Slavic lands, and it ignores Vladimir of Bulgaria, who ruled between 889-893. Some scholars speculate that the name of Sviatoslav, composed of the Slavic roots for "holy" and "glory", was an artificial derivation combining those of his predecessors Oleg and Rurik (they mean "holy" and "glorious" in Old Norse, respectively).[6] On the other hand,such a compound structure name was already known from Great Moravia, as in the rulers named Svatopluk. Clearly Sviatislav's name belongs to this tradition, as he had a son by the name of Yaropolk, of much the same form, and a grandson by the very same name, Sviatopolk.

      [edit]Early life and personality

      Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Henryk Siemiradzki (1843?1902). Virtually nothing is known about his childhood and youth, which he spent reigning in Novgorod. Sviatoslav's father, Igor, was killed by the Drevlians around 945 and his mother, Olga, ruled as regent in Kiev until Sviatoslav's maturity (ca. 963).[7] His tutor was a Varangian named Asmud. "Quick as a leopard,"[8] The tradition of having Varangian tutors for the sons of ruling princes survived well into the 11th century. Sviatoslav appears to have had little patience for administration. His life was spent with his druzhina (roughly, "troops") in permanent warfare against neighboring states. According to the Primary Chronicle: upon his expeditions he carried with him neither wagons nor kettles, and boiled no meat, but cut off small strips of horseflesh, game or beef, and ate it after roasting it on the coals. Nor did he have a tent, but he spread out a horse-blanket under him, and set his saddle under his head, and all his retinue did likewise.[9]


      Illustration of Sviatoslav wearing a vyshyvanka

      Madrid Skylitzes. Meeting between John Tzimiskes and Sviatoslav. Sviatoslav's appearance has been described very clearly by Leo the Deacon, who himself attended the meeting of Sviatoslav with John I Tzimiskes. Following Deacon's memories, Sviatoslav was a blue-eyed male of average height but of stalwart build, much more sturdy than Tzimiskes. He shaved his blond head and his beard but wore a bushy mustache and a sidelock as a sign of his nobility.[10] He preferred to dress in white, and it was noted that his garments were much cleaner than those of his men, although he have had a lot in common with his warriors. He wore a single large gold earring bearing a carbuncle and two pearls.[11]

      [edit]Religious beliefs

      His mother, Olga, converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity at the court of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in 957. However,[12] Sviatoslav remained a pagan for all of his life. In the treaty of 971 between Sviatoslav and the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes, the Rus' are swearing by Perun and Veles.[13] According to the Primary Chronicle, he believed that his warriors (druzhina) would lose respect for him and mock him if he became a Christian.[14] The allegiance of his warriors was of paramount importance in his conquest of an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Danube.


      Svjatoslav's mother, Olga, with her escort in Constantinople, a miniature from the late 11th-century chronicle of John Skylitzes. Very little is known of Sviatoslav's family life. It is possible that Sviatoslav was not the only (and the eldest) son of his parents. The Russo-Byzantine treaty of 945 mentions a certain Predslava, Volodislav's wife, as the noblest of the Rus' women after Olga. The fact that Predslava was Oleg's mother is presented by Vasily Tatishchev. He also speculated that Predslava was of a Hungarian nobility. George Vernadsky was among many historians to speculate that Volodislav was Igor's eldest son and heir who died at some point during Olga's regency. Another chronicle told that Oleg (? - 944?) was the eldest son of Igor. At the time of Igor's death, Sviatoslav was still a child and he was raised by his mother or at her instructions. Her influence, however, did not extend to his religious observance.

      Sviatoslav, had several children, but the origin of his wives is not specified in the chronicle. By his wives, he had Yaropolk and Oleg.[15] By Malusha, a woman of indeterminate origins,[16] Sviatoslav had Vladimir, who would ultimately break with his father's paganism and convert Rus' to Christianity. John Skylitzes reported that Vladimir had a brother named Sfengus; whether this Sfengus was a son of Sviatoslav, a son of Malusha by a prior or subsequent husband, or an unrelated Rus' nobleman is unclear.[17]

      [edit]Eastern campaigns

      Sviatoslav I in the Tsarsky Titulyarnik, 1672 Shortly after his accession to the throne, Sviatoslav began campaigning to expand the Rus' control over the Volga valley and the Pontic steppe region. His greatest success was the conquest of Khazaria, which for centuries had been one of the strongest states of Eastern Europe. The sources are not clear about the roots of the conflict between Khazaria and Rus', so several possibilities have been suggested. The Rus' had an interest in removing the Khazar hold on the Volga trade route because the Khazars collected duties from the goods transported by the Volga. Historians have suggested that the Byzantine Empire may have incited the Rus' against the Khazars, who fell out with the Byzantines after the persecutions of the Jews in the reign of Romanus I Lecapenus.[18]

      Sviatoslav began by rallying the Khazars' East Slavic vassal tribes to his cause. Those who would not join him, such as the Vyatichs, were attacked and forced to pay tribute to the Kievan Rus' rather than the Khazars.[19] According to a legend recorded in the Primary Chronicle, Sviatoslav sent a message to the Vyatich rulers, consisting of a single phrase: "I want to come at you!" (Old East Slavic: "???? ?? ?? ???")[20] This phrase is used in modern Russian (usually misquoted as "??? ?? ??") and in modern Ukrainian ("??? ?? ??") to denote an unequivocal declaration of one's intentions. Proceeding by the Oka and Volga rivers, he invaded Volga Bulgaria and exacted tribute from the local population, thus bringing under Kievan control the upper Volga River. He employed Oghuz and Pecheneg mercenaries in this campaign, perhaps to counter the Khazars' and Bulgars' superior cavalry.[21]

      The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel, sacked by Sviatoslav c. 965 (aerial photo from excavations conducted by Mikhail Artamonov in the 1930s) Sviatoslav destroyed the Khazar city of Sarkel around 965, and possibly sacked (but did not occupy) the Khazar city of Kerch on the Crimea.[22] At Sarkel he established a Rus' settlement called Belaya Vyezha ("the white tower" or "the white fortress", the East Slavic translation for "Sarkel").[23] He subsequently destroyed the Khazar capital of Atil.[24] A visitor to Atil wrote soon after Sviatoslav's campaign: "The Rus' attacked, and no grape or raisin remained, not a leaf on a branch."[25] The exact chronology of his Khazar campaign is uncertain and disputed; for example, Mikhail Artamonov and David Christian proposed that the sack of Sarkel came after the destruction of Atil.[26]

      Although Ibn Haukal reports Sviatoslav's sack of Samandar in modern-day Dagestan, the Rus' leader did not bother to occupy the Khazar heartlands north of the Caucasus Mountains permanently. On his way back to Kiev, Sviatoslav chose to strike against the Ossetians and force them into subservience.[27] Therefore, Khazar successor statelets continued their precarious existence in the region.[28] The destruction of Khazar imperial power paved the way for Kievan Rus' to dominate north-south trade routes through the steppe and across the Black Sea, routes that formerly had been a major source of revenue for the Khazars. Moreover, Sviatoslav's campaigns led to increased Slavic settlement in the region of the Saltovo-Mayaki culture, greatly changing the demographics and culture of the transitional area between the forest and the steppe.[29]